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Source: Buddhist Dictionary, Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA


vipāka: 'kamma-result', is any kammically (morally) neutral mental phenomenon (e.g. bodily agreeable or painful feeling, sense-consciousness, etc. ), which is the result of wholesome or unwholesome volitional action (kamma, q.v.) through body, speech or mind, done either in this or some previous life. Totally wrong is the belief that, according to Buddhism, everything is the result of previous action. Never, for example, is any kammically wholesome or unwholesome volitional action the result of former action, being in reality itself kamma. On this subject s. titthāyatana, kamma, Tab. I; Fund II. Cf. A. III, 101; Kath. 162 (Guide, p. 80). Kamma-produced (kammaja or kamma-samuṭṭhāna) corporeal things are never called kamma-vipāka, as this term may be applied only to mental phenomena.

Source: A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, 2003, 2004 (which is available in electronic version from



(Sanskrit). Maturation, coming to fruition; one of the five kinds of results (phala). Used generally in connection with the arising of the results of karma but also found in Mahāyāna to connote the salvific activities of a Buddha or Bodhisattva as they cause beings to mature spiritually.

Source: A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera, Concise Pali-English and English-Pali Dictionary [available as digital version from Metta Net, Sri Lanka]


vipāka : [m.] result; fruition; consequence of one's actions.

Source: Pali-English Dictionary, TW Rhys Davids, William Stede,


Vipāka [fr. vi+pac] fruit, fruition, product; always in pregnant meaning of "result, effect, consequence (of one's action)," either as good & meritorious (kusala) or bad & detrimental (akusala). Hence "retribution" (kamma˚), reward or punishment. See on term e. g. Dhs. trsln introd.2 xciii; Cpd. 43. 249. -- D iii.150, 160, 176 sq.; S i.34, 57, 92 (kammassa); ii.128 (compar. vipākatara), 255 (id.); iv.186 sq., 348 sq.; A i.48, 97 (sukha˚, dukkha˚), 134 (kamma˚), 263; ii.34 (agga), 80, 112; iii.35, 172 (dānassa), 410 sq. (kāmānaŋ etc.), 436; iv. 303 (kamma˚); v.251; Sn 653 (kamma˚); Ps ii.79 (dukkha˚); Pv i.91; i.107 & passim; Pug 13, 21; Dhs 431, 497, 987; Vbh 16 sq., 73, 319, 326 sq., 334 (sukha˚); Kvu 353 sq., 464 (kamma & vipāka); Nett 99, 161, 180 sq.; Tikp 27 (fourfold), 44, 48, 50, 292 (a˚ & sa˚), 328 sq. (˚tika), 350 sq.; Dukp 17; Vism 177, 454 (fourfold), 456 (˚viññāṇa), 538 (˚paccaya), 545 sq.; VbhA 17, 150 sq. (kusala˚ & akusala), 144, 177, 391; PvA 50, 73, 77; Sdhp 12, 73, 197, 235.

Source: Sarvastivada Abhidharma, Sanskrit-English Glossary, by Bhikkhu KL Dhammajoti



Retribution, maturation.

Source: Jeffrey Hopkins' Tibetan-Sanskrit-English Dictionary



bdag gir bya ba

[translation-san] {C} mama-kāra

[translation-san] {MSA} mamāyita

[translation-san] {MSA} vipāka(?)

[translation-eng] {C} mine-making