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Wednesday 2 September 2015 (HKT)

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Reflections from the 14th Sakyadhita International Conference: Nurturing the Theravada Bhikkhuni Sangha

Reflections from the 14th Sakyadhita International Conference: Nurturing the Theravada Bhikkhuni Sangha

Munissara Bhikkhuni
An examination of equal opportunity for ordination and Buddhist education for women
Heritage Cannot Wait: The Matho Museum Project

Heritage Cannot Wait: The Matho Museum Project

Nathalie Paarlberg
On a mission to preserve the Buddhist heritage of Matho Monastery
The Wonders of Kham and Larung Gar, Part Two

The Wonders of Kham and Larung Gar, Part Two

Victoria Knobloch
A photographic journey to Larung Gar and Kham
Sayadaw Ashin Nanujjotabhivamsa: “Meditation is the cool water that extinguishes the fire of suffering”

Sayadaw Ashin Nanujjotabhivamsa: “Meditation is the cool water that extinguishes the fire of suffering”

Raymond Lam
Insights from the Panditarama Meditation Center in Yangon
Rethinking Life Release

Rethinking Life Release

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Examining some abuses of a virtuous practice
Approaching Vajrayana - Part Three: Path Tantra

Approaching Vajrayana - Part Three: Path Tantra

Jakob Leschly
The logic of Vajrayana view and practice
Art as Buddhist Practice—A Portrait of Tsunma Jamyang Donma

Art as Buddhist Practice—A Portrait of Tsunma Jamyang Donma

Harsha Menon
Harsha Menon talks with a creator of glass thangkas
Buddhistdoor View: Forgiveness and Repentance

Buddhistdoor View: Forgiveness and Repentance

Buddhistdoor
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Shakyamuni Buddha’s Responses to the Three Requests of Queen Vaidehi

Shakyamuni Buddha’s Responses to the Three Requests of Queen Vaidehi

Alan Kwan
Alan Kwan examines the Contemplation Sutra
The Journey of Women Going Forth into the Bhikkhuni Order in Bangladesh: An Interview with Samaneri Gautami, Part 1

The Journey of Women Going Forth into the Bhikkhuni Order in Bangladesh: An Interview with Samaneri Gautami, Part 1

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Samaneri Gautami on her path to becoming a bhikkhuni
Love Letter to the Earth – Book Review

Love Letter to the Earth – Book Review

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Abbreviation

Total glossary entries273414

佛書


Source: 佛光電子大辭典

Description: 指與佛教有關之典籍。又作佛典、內典、妙典。反之,佛教以外之典籍稱外典、世典、外道書、外俗書。妙典係尊稱,尤指一宗所依之經論。隨著佛教史之展開與傳播地域之擴展,佛書漸次擴大其內容。通常指所有有關佛陀教說之經論典籍,廣義之佛書則包括經、律、論三藏及其注疏、各宗之典籍、史傳類、大藏經目錄、辭彙、行事、寺誌及地誌等,乃至於依據佛教所寫之故事、小說、戲曲、隨筆、歌謠等之佛教文學。故知佛書一語涵蓋極廣,然嚴格言之,應以大藏經聖典為中心,即以經、律、論三藏為主幹之印度佛教聖典,及我國、日本所撰述而次第增廣之一切經。
 若以經典流傳之地域別之,則北傳方面,自印度經由西域,或經南海而傳入我國、朝鮮、日本,或自印度傳至西藏、蒙古;南傳方面,則自印度傳至錫蘭、緬甸、暹羅(泰國)、柬埔寨(高棉)等東南亞諸國。由於地域之不同,遂形成各自獨特的佛教思想與文化。又因各種語言文字之翻譯流傳,及歷代祖師之種種著作,佛教典籍因而內容分歧、數量龐大。被收入大藏經中之佛典各有其特色,其中傳承於我國、日本之漢文佛典,其質、量最大。其次,能與之抗衡者為流傳於西藏、蒙古之藏譯佛典及喇嘛教聖典。錫蘭、緬甸、泰國、高棉等地所傳承之巴利語三藏,則具有聖典之一貫性與純粹性。至於梵語佛典,其量遠不及前三者(漢藏、藏文佛典、巴利藏),然因收入大乘經典及各種重要論書,故對佛教研究甚為重要。梵語佛典主要自尼泊爾傳來,其他從喀什米爾、西藏之古僧院、古塔,及西域發掘之窟院中所發現者亦不少。
 據傳,佛陀入滅後,以摩訶迦葉為首之五百弟子,於王舍城召開第一次經典結集,編纂佛陀之言教。此次結集恐係聚集多數佛弟子合誦佛陀之聖句,而非在此時成立聖典。據現存資料推定,在阿育王時代,即有聖典之單行本出現。雜阿含經卷四十九中記載牟尼偈(梵 Munigāthā)之名,又阿育王碑文中亦發現牟尼偈之文,由此可見西元前三世紀已有單行本存在。然其時非以編纂經典為目的,乃為便於諷誦佛語之故。此由西晉白法祖所譯之佛般泥洹經所載,及阿含經中隨處有佛弟子晨朝誦經之記錄可以得知。今日所謂之巴利語三藏乃後世所編纂者。經、律、論三藏成立以前,曾將佛典分為九分教、十二分教。
 三藏之中,律藏成立最早,時代約在阿育王之時,其次為經藏。從第一次結集至部派佛教時代之間,分成四階段,隨後次第附加,以至於現存之型式。論藏為三者中成立最晚者,此因部派佛教時代盛行對佛陀教說之研究,致力於說明、注釋、整理分類、除去教說中相互之矛盾,由此遂產生諸種論書。
 早期佛教並無記錄之經典,雖稱結集,然不用筆錄,僅合誦而擇其義而已。此因當時之印度認為筆寫有瀆經典之神聖,故以口授相傳。至阿育王時代漸次出現筆錄之佛典。現今之佛典,從語文之流傳上可分為:
 (一)巴利文佛典:為南方各地區所傳持之佛教聖典,有經、律、論三藏及藏外典籍。三藏之中,經藏稱為尼柯耶(部),相當於漢譯之阿含,共有五部,即長部、中部、相應部、增支部、小部。律藏分為經分別、犍度部、附錄三部,為研究原始佛教教團之重要資料。論藏有法聚論等七論。藏外典籍大凡可分三期:第一期有指導論(
Nettipakarana)、藏釋(Petakopadesa)、彌蘭王問經(Milindapañhā)、島史(Dīpavajsa)等。其中彌蘭王問經為說明印度與希臘文化交流情形之典籍,極為重要。第二期有三藏注釋書(Atthakathā)與大史(Mahāvajsa)。第三期有三藏注釋書之注及小史(Cūlavajsa)等。此外尚有文典、辭典、史書、教理史等大量文獻。
 (二)梵文佛典:貴霜王朝之迦膩色迦王於喀什米爾召開第四次結集之際,決定其後以梵語為聖典語。初期之梵語佛典並非採用古典梵語,乃是用佛典特有之佛教混淆梵語。佛教徒以古典梵語著作或始於笈多王朝,即四至五世紀以後。梵語佛典大多屬於大乘,極少數為小乘,不若巴利語佛典之系統化,內容亦無秩序而多歧異,大部分在十九世紀初以後才由西歐探險家所發現。
 日本學者山田龍城將各種梵語佛典分類為:(1)原始─阿含類、毘奈耶(律)類、譬喻文學、佛傳文學、讚佛文學。(2)大乘─般若經類、華嚴經類、法華經類、涅槃經類、寶積經類、大集經類、諸經集類。(3)諸論─毘曇類、中觀論書、瑜伽諸論、後期諸論。(4)祕密─所作經疏、行瑜伽類、無上瑜伽、祕密拾遺。其中,阿含類僅殘留斷片,毘奈耶類近年來次第刊行戒本及根本說一切有部所傳之律典,這些律典與佛傳、譬喻文學有密切關係。名之為阿波陀那(
Avadāna)的譬喻文學,係由印度通俗文學中尋求主題,再穿插佛教教理,以教化民眾為目的之佛教文學。其梵文寫本之數量僅次於祕密部,內容亦極重要;譬喻百集(Avadānaśataka,漢譯撰集百緣經)、天譬喻(Divyāvadāna)、寶鬘譬喻(Ratnamālāvadāna)為其主要者。佛傳文學有大事(Mahāvastu)、方廣大莊嚴經(Lalitavistara)、馬鳴之佛所行讚(Buddhacarita)等。讚佛文學有馬鳴所作歌詠難陀出家與成就之孫陀羅難陀詩(Saundarananda-Kāvya)、摩咥里制吒(Mātrceta)之四百讚,及克歇門德拉(Ksemendra)之作品等。
 大乘經典有十萬頌般若、二萬五千頌般若、八千頌般若、金剛般若、七百頌般若、十地經、入法界品、法華經、極樂莊嚴(無量壽經、阿彌陀經)、普明菩薩會、悲華經、金光明經、月燈三昧經、入楞伽經等。另有大般涅槃經、大集經等諸種之斷片等。諸論有俱舍論,龍樹之中論、迴諍論、寶行王正論,及提婆之四百觀論等之中觀論書。瑜伽論書有瑜伽師地論、大乘莊嚴經論、中邊分別論、現觀莊嚴論、究竟一乘寶性論、唯識二十頌、唯識三十頌等。後期論書有月稱之中論註淨明句、寂天之大乘集菩薩學論、入菩提行經、寂護之攝真實論、法稱之量評釋、正理一滴等。屬祕密部之梵文寫本現存三百多部,包括各種陀羅尼、儀軌、成就法、怛特羅等。
 (三)西域佛典:佛教由印度傳入我國之際,途經西域、中亞等地,遂有下列各種語言所寫經典之流傳,即:和闐語、龜茲語、回鶻語、吐火羅語(
Tukhāra)、粟特語(Sogdh)等,此等經典直至二十世紀才被探險家發現,其現存者皆為斷片,翻譯及書寫年代均很早,為研究佛典、佛典史之重要資料。
 (四)西藏、蒙古文佛典:藏語佛典包括大藏經及藏外文獻,前者大多譯自梵語佛典。西藏大藏經分成甘珠爾(
Bkah-hgyur)與丹珠爾(Bstan-hgyur)兩部分,前者為經部與律部,後者為論部與經律之注疏、讚歌、儀軌,及與歷史、論理、語言、醫學、工藝等有關之著作。藏外文獻有喇嘛教之新舊諸宗派聖典,及喇嘛傳記、寺誌、史書、文法書、曆法書、醫學書、讚歌、儀軌、誓願文、信等。
 蒙古民族自十三世紀信仰佛教以來,除由藏文大藏經翻譯成蒙古語大藏經之外,用蒙古語所著作之書、注釋書等,數量亦很龐大。
 (五)漢文佛典:分為印度傳來的佛典之漢譯及我國所撰述者二種。前者之原本除梵語佛典外,另有西域等地之方言及混淆俗語之典籍。後者為經律論之注釋書、講義書,及我國祖師之撰述,與對此等之注釋書及研究書等。其數量隨時代而增加,為其他佛書所不能比擬者。大正新修大藏經所收錄之印度撰述與中國撰述兩部分,印度撰述部分包括阿含、本緣、般若、法華、華嚴、寶積、涅槃、大集、經集、密教、律、釋經論、毘曇、中觀、瑜伽、論集等十六部分;中國撰述部分則分為經疏、律疏、論疏、諸宗、史傳、事彙、外教、目錄等(史傳、外教兩部包含若干印度撰述,目錄部則包含部分日本撰述),總計二二三六部,九○○六卷。我國祖師撰述之典籍中,最具代表性或對後世影響較大者,經疏有僧肇之注維摩經十卷、智顗之法華玄義、法華文句各二十卷、法藏之華嚴探玄記二十卷、一行之大日經疏二十卷、善導之觀經疏四卷等,律疏有道宣之四分律行事鈔十二卷等,論疏有普光之俱舍論記三十卷、法寶之俱舍論疏三十卷、吉藏之中觀論疏二十卷、窺基之成唯識論述記二十卷、法藏之起信論義記五卷等。其次,有關各宗特色者為僧肇之肇論一卷、慧遠之大乘義章二十六卷、吉藏之三論玄義一卷、大乘玄論五卷、窺基之大乘法苑義林章七卷、法藏之華嚴五教章四卷、宗密之原人論一卷、智顗之摩訶止觀二十卷、道綽之安樂集二卷、德輝重編之敕修百丈清規十卷,及宋代禪僧之各種語錄等。
 史傳部自印度翻譯者有異部宗輪論,為部派歷史、教義之概說,其他如阿育王、龍樹、馬鳴、提婆、世親之各傳記等。我國所撰述者為梁代慧皎之高僧傳十四卷及唐、宋、明各代之高僧傳及高僧之別傳、往生傳、寺誌、地誌之類,法顯傳、西域記等。齊梁以後,抄寫大藏經要旨之風盛行,現存者有梁代寶唱等之經律異相五十卷、唐代道世之法苑珠林一百卷、諸經要集二十卷等。又入藏諸經之解題有宋代惟白之大藏經綱目指要錄八卷。為研究大藏經而作之音義有唐代玄應之一切經音義二十五卷、唐代慧琳之一切經音義一百卷等。此外,有關解說梵語字義者有宋代法雲之翻譯名義集七卷,有關大藏經名數事項之編集者有明代寂照之大藏經法數七十卷等。外教部中則有真諦所譯之金七十論三卷,係數論學派之論書;玄奘所譯之勝宗十句義論一卷,係屬勝論學派之論數;此外,尚有道教之老子化胡經等。
 (六)日本之佛典:可大別為五種:(1)有關經律論之注釋。(2)各宗派之典籍。(3)史傳、目錄等。(4)法語、御詞、聞書、語錄等宣揚宗義信仰之文書。(5)用於教化民眾之唱導、讚歌、和讚、講式及通俗文學等。其中,較具日本佛教特色之代表作為聖德太子之三經義疏、最澄之守護國界章九卷及顯戒論三卷、空海之十住心論十卷、即身成佛義一卷及辨顯密二教論二卷、淳和天皇敕撰之天長六本宗書、源為憲之三寶繪詞三卷、源信之往生要集三卷、慶滋保胤之日本往生傳一卷、源空之選擇本願念佛集一卷、高辨之摧邪輪三卷、榮西之興禪護國論三卷、道元之正法眼藏九十五卷、瑩山之瑩山清規二卷、親鸞之教行信證六卷、唯圓編之歎異抄一卷、日蓮之立正安國論一卷、凝然之八宗綱要二卷、師鍊之元亨釋書三十卷、蓮如上人御文五卷、師蠻之本朝高僧傳七十五卷、良遍之觀心覺夢鈔三卷、白隱之夜船閑話一卷等。又屬於說話集者有西行之撰集抄九卷、鴨長明之發心集三卷、住信之私聚百因緣集六卷、無住之沙石集十卷等,皆收入大正藏第五十六卷以下,或大日本佛教全書一百五十卷中,及各宗派聖典全書之中。另有昭和七年(1932)小野玄妙所編佛書解說大辭典,其書網羅和語、漢語佛書共六萬五千五百餘部,共分:(1)藏經,(2)全書,(3)古寫本、古刊本之單行本,(4)現在之單行本,(5)古逸書類。又自大正六年(1917),日本陸續有國譯大藏經三十卷、國譯大藏經四十八卷、國譯一切經一五六卷、國譯禪學大成二十五卷等,以和文翻譯大部漢文經典之佛書問世。此外,昭和十年至十六年所刊之南傳大藏經七十卷為巴利語三藏之全譯。又各宗派所出版之全書亦為日本佛書近數十年來之特色,有天台宗全書二十五卷、真言宗全書四十二卷、淨土宗全書二十卷、真宗大系三十七卷、日蓮宗全書二十六卷等。(參閱「大藏經」893、「中文大藏經」1001、「西藏大藏經」2588、「南傳大藏經」3748、「南傳佛教」3750)

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“Negligence produces a lot of dirt. As in a house, so in the mind, only a very little dirt collects in a day or two, but if it goes on for many years, it will grow into a vast heap of refuse.” - Anagarika B. Govinda
Wednesday 2 September 2015 (HKT)

FEATURES Updated Fridays View All

Reflections from the 14th Sakyadhita International Conference: Nurturing the Theravada Bhikkhuni Sangha

Reflections from the 14th Sakyadhita International Conference: Nurturing the Theravada Bhikkhuni Sangha

Munissara Bhikkhuni
An examination of equal opportunity for ordination and Buddhist education for women
Heritage Cannot Wait: The Matho Museum Project

Heritage Cannot Wait: The Matho Museum Project

Nathalie Paarlberg
On a mission to preserve the Buddhist heritage of Matho Monastery
The Wonders of Kham and Larung Gar, Part Two

The Wonders of Kham and Larung Gar, Part Two

Victoria Knobloch
A photographic journey to Larung Gar and Kham
Sayadaw Ashin Nanujjotabhivamsa: “Meditation is the cool water that extinguishes the fire of suffering”

Sayadaw Ashin Nanujjotabhivamsa: “Meditation is the cool water that extinguishes the fire of suffering”

Raymond Lam
Insights from the Panditarama Meditation Center in Yangon
Rethinking Life Release

Rethinking Life Release

Shuyin
Examining some abuses of a virtuous practice
Approaching Vajrayana - Part Three: Path Tantra

Approaching Vajrayana - Part Three: Path Tantra

Jakob Leschly
The logic of Vajrayana view and practice
Art as Buddhist Practice—A Portrait of Tsunma Jamyang Donma

Art as Buddhist Practice—A Portrait of Tsunma Jamyang Donma

Harsha Menon
Harsha Menon talks with a creator of glass thangkas
Buddhistdoor View: Forgiveness and Repentance

Buddhistdoor View: Forgiveness and Repentance

Buddhistdoor
Forgiveness as a step towards spiritual transformation
Shakyamuni Buddha’s Responses to the Three Requests of Queen Vaidehi

Shakyamuni Buddha’s Responses to the Three Requests of Queen Vaidehi

Alan Kwan
Alan Kwan examines the Contemplation Sutra
The Journey of Women Going Forth into the Bhikkhuni Order in Bangladesh: An Interview with Samaneri Gautami, Part 1

The Journey of Women Going Forth into the Bhikkhuni Order in Bangladesh: An Interview with Samaneri Gautami, Part 1

John Cannon and Jnan Nanda
Samaneri Gautami on her path to becoming a bhikkhuni
Love Letter to the Earth – Book Review

Love Letter to the Earth – Book Review

Roz Keep
Thich Nhat Hanh on our relationship with Mother Earth

NEWS Updated Weekdays View All

1 Sep 2015
Discriminatory measures highlight threat of religious intolerance
31 Aug 2015
UNESCO and ICOMOS officials review ancient Buddhist site
28 Aug 2015
200 Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs attend in spirit of interfaith harmony
27 Aug 2015
Authorities seek to clamp down on institute's rapid growth
26 Aug 2015
His Holiness now focusing on working as an advocate for world peace

COLUMNS Updated Fridays View All

Dharma Eye
A photographic journey to Larung Gar and Kham
Uploaded 28 Aug 2015
Teachings of Amitabha
Alan Kwan examines the Contemplation Sutra
Uploaded 21 Aug 2015
Buddhism in America
Harsha Menon talks with a creator of glass thangkas
Uploaded 21 Aug 2015
Dharma Eye
Laura Santi discusses her intriguing thangka painting
Uploaded 14 Aug 2015
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